Aftermath and Rebuilding Iraq
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The speed at which the entire occupation (or liberation or invasion or war or whatever is the appropriate term) took place, and the ease at which the Iraqi forces were decimated suggested that the imminent threat that Iraq had posed (for such a long time) has shown itself to be an exaggeration. This was one of the main justifications for war (that Saddam was a brutal dictator, and the accompanying humanitarian reasons were only used later when the U.S. and U.K. started to lose the propaganda war), as detailed on the propaganda1 page in this Iraq section. But the issue for Iraqi civilians and society remained throughout. From being under a dictatorship to now being in a power vacuum, occupation, insecurity and instability have become major problems.
On this page:
- U.S. or U.N.-led Reconstruction of Iraq?
- Rebuilding and Reconstruction
- Looting and Lost Archeological Treasures
that U.S. think tank, Council on Foreign Relations, produced a report in March, that
called on Bush to stress
two messages: Explain the United States' vital interest in Iraq's future to the American people, so they will be
willing to bear the cost of reconstruction; and to make the public commitment, so Iraqis understand the United
States will not walk out before job is done.
Side Note on vital interest and perception of continued occupation
It would remain to be seen if the
vital interests are explained in geopolitical terms, or just left as
vital interests or some other vague term that has often been used to explain geopolitical actions in the
past. The second part of the message is interesting because it describes and supports U.S. presence in Iraq as
being about not walking out before the job is done.
- Yet, many in Iraq have pointed out that while they are happy Saddam is gone, they would also like to see the U.S. to leave, and allow the Iraqis to get on with the rebuilding of their country.
- For example, on April 18, the BBC
that thousands took to the streets to
protest against what they see as a foreign occupation of their countryin what was said to be
the biggest demonstration of Arab nationalism since the end of the war, and shows what powerful sentiments the US-led invasion of Iraq has stirred up.
- Many protests have been going on throughout the weeks because there has been so much chaos after Saddam was toppled. A lot of looting and killings have taken place. The U.S. have tried to even prevent the media from reporting some protests, as the Australian paper, The Age, pointed out (April 16, 20034).
- In another example, the U.S. tried to bring together a number of leaders from various political factions in Iraq in the historic city of Ur. However, one of the largest groups did not attend, and in addition, there were many protests in parts of Iraq, including nearby Nassiriya, as Reuters reported (April 15, 20035) where possibly 20,000 people took part in protests, in fear of U.S. control.
- An additional paradox is revealed by a reporter for the BBC in Iraq, who pointed out (April 18, 2003) that for years, radical Islam was one avenue that oppressed people would turn to. What if the democratic processes lead to Islamic leaders to come into power?
- Another twist that the BBC did not note, (and typically most of the mainstream never has in comparison to say the frequency with which we are reminded of Saddam's brutality), is that for decades, the West, and the U.S. in particular has had the habit of supporting dicatators6 and other corrupt regimes. In the Middle East, such extreme oppression has often been expressed from a counter extremism of militant Islam, which has been able to readily recruit fresh minds to their causes.
Under the Geneva Conventions, an occupying force has responsibility over security and order, but Iraq has proven to be a difficult place to fully secure, with occupying troops meeting fierce pockets of resistance and anger.
A huge blast at the United Nations headquarters in Baghdad killed at least 24 people on August 19, 2003. It would at first appear odd why the U.N. would be targetted, when previous waves of attacks have been aimed at the U.S. and British troops. While we often see the U.N. and U.S. at odds on most international issues, many in areas such as the middle east have long seen the U.N. as a manipulated arm serving western/U.S. interests. As a result it has been conceivable that the U.N. may have also been a target too. But U.N. Secretary General, Koffi Annan blamed the U.S. for lack of security in Iraq on the whole, while the U.S. military said that the security for the U.N. was a U.N. issue. Quoting from an article in the South African, Daily Mail and Guardian at some length:
In September, at a major United Nations conference in New York, Annan continued his criticism saying that nations (implying the United States) that take unilateral action risk breeding more terrorism. As Sydney Morning Herald reported:
At that same conference, George Bush, speaking after Annan, defended the invasion of Iraq. However, Bush did not seem to get much international support of his speech 9.
Amongst the various things that Bush mentioned, he stated that another issue we must confront together
the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Outlaw regimes that possess nuclear, chemical, and biological
weapons -- and the means to deliver them -- would be able to use blackmail and create chaos in entire regions.
These weapons could be used by terrorists to bring sudden disaster and suffering on a scale we can scarcely
imagine. The deadly combination of outlaw regimes, terror networks, and weapons of mass murder is a peril that
cannot be ignored or wished away. If such a danger is allowed to fully materialize, all words, all protests, will
come too late. Nations of the world must have the wisdom and the will to stop grave threats before they arrive.
Former head of the UN oil-for-food program in Iraq and assistant secretary general of the UN, Dennis Halliday
provides a very to-the-point critique of this talk. He noted that
Bush's own disregard for international law is contributing to proliferation10.
Nuclear proliferation? Does Bush not understand that his military aggression, disregard for the rule of
international law and the UN, plus his concept of
pre-emptive strike is the very cause of proliferation, as
countries openly threatened by Washington determine that nuclear capacity is the only defense against American
This issue of powerful nations using their might and possibly causing other countries to consider their nuclear options is discussed more on this site's sections on arms control11 and the arms trade12.
In addition, no country has offered troops or financial contributions13,
as requested by George Bush, according to La Figaro (September 26, 2003). One of the reasons, the
article suggests is that other countries do not want to legitimate the role of occupation. It might be early
diplomacy and such pressures from the U.S. and U.K. might sway some countries into various
forms of assistance.
Koffi Annan, at the end of September 2003, ordered a cutback of international UN staff in Iraq14, responding to recent security fears. This might be playing into the hands of the terrorists who have bombed the UN, some say, but whether or not, the security of Iraq continues to look shakey for the near future.
U.S. or U.N.-led Reconstruction of Iraq?
At the time of writing, it is unclear what the United Nation's role will be in the reconstruction of Iraq. At
different times, media reports from the U.S. indicate that the U.N. will have a
key role (whatever that
means!) and at other times it appears that the U.N. will likely have a role subordinate to the U.S. The United
States appear to be keen to run the show, as if it were, while much of the international community want the effort
to be headed by the United Nations. Politically, the criticism that would be charged against the U.S. if it were
to lead the process would include that again it is usurping international will, and that the U.N. is again
subdued by U.S. interests.
As of August 2003, it looks less likely that the U.N. will have the leading role, as the South African Daily Mail and Guardian comments, in an article on the bomb blast that killed 24 at the UN headquarters in Baghdad:
Rebuilding and Reconstruction
There has been long concern at where lucrative reconstruction costs and oil contracts are going.
Controversial Reconstruction Contracts
As reconstruction has supposedly begun, even Republicans are criticizing current efforts for not being near
enough. For example, UK's mainstream newspaper, The Times, reports
May 23, 2003
18) that Richard Lugar, the
most senior Republican authority on foreign relations in Congress has warned
President Bush that the United States is on the brink of catastrophe in Iraq. Lugar said that
was in danger of creating The New York Times adds
May 22, 2003
19) that there has been frustration at the Bush administration's
an incubator for terrorist cells and activity unless it increased the scope and
cost of its reconstruction efforts. He said that more troops, billions more dollars and a longer commitment were
needed if the US were not to throw away the peace.
failure to consult in depth with Congress
about the costs, methods and goals of rebuilding Iraq. (We also begin to get a hint of the enormous challenges
involved here in the rebuilding process, whereby some are advocating more U.S./U.K. involvement to prevent more
turmoil and conflict, while others (including many Iraqis) suggest that the U.S. needs to withdraw quickly.)
In addition, criticisms about war profiteering by some multinationals, as well as preferential contracts to companies with ties to the U.S. Bush Administration are coming out as well. There are potential hundred of millions to billions of dollars worth of contracts in the reconstruction, and so large companies are of course attracted to this prospect. However, some have also had poor human rights or environmental records in the past as well.
This is quite a large topic to be covered here. Instead, for now, see for the following links for example:
- Well-connected and wealthy: Bechtel wins from Saddam's demise20, by Andrew Gumbel, The Independent, May 24, 2003
- UK firms scramble to share in spoils of war21 by Kim Sengupta, The Independent, May 24, 2003
- War Profiteers Shell, Bechtel, Fluor Take Record of Terror From Africa to Iraq 22 by Dena Montague, San Francisco Bay View, May 21, 2003
- Bechtel Wins Iraq War Contracts23 by Pratap Chatterjee, CorpWatch, April 24, 2003
- Military Industrial Complex24 from CorpWatch is a section with numerous articles and analysis on the military and corporate related interests. Some of these articles include those related to Iraq.
Into November 2003, Iraqi local businessmen have been complaining that most reconstruction contracts leave local business out25.
Controversial Oil Contracts
Oil of course is an important issue. It turns out that some western companies have already secured some contracts. Critics of opposers of war were quick (and right) to point out that Russia, China, and France, for example, had oil contract interests with the Saddam Hussein regime. Yet, very early on, countries such as the U.S. and U.K. were exploiting their positions to get oil contracts. In the new round of contracts, while China and France managed to get some, Russia didn't get any, and look likely not to. As Pratap Chatterjee notes:
Looting and Lost Archeological Treasures
The terrible scenes of looting due to the power vacuum were initially broadcast all over the media, while the Coalition forces at first appeared to do little to prevent it. This was despite organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the International Red Cross, and others pointing out that the occupying power, under the Geneva Conventions, has an obligation to provide security and establish law and order. Under public pressure forces eventually started to provide some sort of security. However, looting was still continued for a while, and as the Observer reported (May 25, 2003), gangs and high crime levels 30 have continued to be major problems in places like Baghdad.
Amidst the looting, many of Iraq's archaeological treasures were destroyed or stolen. At first it was reported that these were tragic aspects of looting, though now it is emerging that it was perhaps organized31. Some of the treasures have been so valuable that is has been described as the equivaluent to the loss of many Mona Lisa's. A number of the items are some of the oldest archaeological findings (Some of the areas in modern Iraq are regarded as parts of the birthplace of civilization).
Inter Press Service reported during the war on the concerns about the archaeological sites,
April 8, 200332.
They pointed out the damage from the previous war. They also noted that
Iraqi territory is estimated to hold
10,000 archaeological sites with artefacts and constructions that have yet to be studied and countless secrets to
decipher. In addition,
Much of the country's treasures are in Mosul Nasiriya and Tikrit, three cities that
have been bombed heavily by the invading forces. Before the war began, academic experts met with the Pentagon
to tell them about Iraq's most valuable cultural sites.
The Pentagon had a list of 150 important locations. The
academic experts handed over a list of more than 4,000 and insisted that they represented just a small percentage
of Iraq's rich heritage.
The Pentagon itself had sent a memo in the early days of the war urging top commanders of U.S. ground forces to
protect the Iraqi National Museum and other cultural sites from looters. The Washington Times obtained
a copy of the memo.
Coalition forces must secure these facilities in order to prevent looting and the resulting
irreparable loss of cultural treasures the Washington Times reported33.
The US army had been criticized by the media for failing to do so adequately, resulting in 270,000 artefacts being
stolen from Iraq's national museum alone, as mentioned by the Guardian
(April 20, 200334).
The US military argued, (as the articles above also highlight), that its primary job in the first few days was
to quell armed resistance in Baghdad, and that it could not tackle looters until it had finished fighting a war.
U.S. Defense Secretary, Donald Rumsfeld, tried to fend off some of the criticism, saying that in a war situation
such unfortunate circumstances cannot be helped, as it is difficult to stop. However, the head of President Bush's
Advisory Committee on Cultural Property, Martin Sullivan, resigned over the issue, as the Guardian
also reported, saying
it was which was secured very soon.
inexcusable that the museum should not have had the same priority as the
Iraqi Oil Ministry
In a pre-emptive war that's the kind of thing you should
have planned for he also added, as reported by Channel 4 News (April 18, 200335).
It is interesting to note above the comment about protecting ministries other than just the oil ministry. Journalist Robert Fisk noted how so many ministries were left burning:
(For more about this aspect, see also the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) web site37 dealing with Iraq. It will contain more information as it becomes available on the details of the treasures lost, recovered, saved, and so forth.)
This article is part of the following collection:
- Iraq—2003 onwards; War, Aftermath and Post-Saddam
- Iraq - WikiLeaks - More Damaging Revelations for the US
- Iraq War Media Reporting, Journalism and Propaganda
- Aftermath and Rebuilding Iraq
- Iraq: Lack of Security and Deteriorating Conditions
- Justifying the Iraq War and WMDs
- Iraq War and Geopolitics
- Handover of Power to Iraqis
- Iraq Links for More Information
(Note that listed here are only those hyperlinks to other articles from other web sites or elsewhere on this web site. Other sources such as journal, books and magazines, are mentioned above in the original text. Please also note that links to external sites are beyond my control. They might become unavailable temporarily or permanently since you read this, depending on the policies of those sites, which I cannot unfortunately do anything about.)
- Iraq Crisis: Building The Case for a New War, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast/Iraq/BuildingTheCase.asp
- David Ensor, 'Report: Reconstruction in Iraq could cost up to $20 billion a year', CNN, March 12, 2003, http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/12/sprj.irq.costs/index.html
- 'Baghdad protesters denounce 'occupation'', BBC, April 18, 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2959015.stm
- 'US bans media from protests', The Age, April 16, 2003, http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/04/15/1050172597223.html
- Adrian Croft, 'Protests Greet U.S.-Led Talks on Iraq', Reuters, April 15, 2003, http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&storyID=2568617
- Control of Resources; Supporting Dictators; Rise of Terrorism, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast/Resources.asp
- A repost of two news articles from The Guardian and the Washington Post, September 24, 2003, http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/092503A.shtml
- 'Bush at the UN', Institute for Public A