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"To kill the big rats, you have to kill the little rats."
— This was broadcast by a Rwanda radio during the genocide in 1994, where some 300,000 children were said to be killed. (Cited from the UNICEF State of the World's Children 1996 report, section on Children in War1)
"In the past decade, an estimated two million children have been killed in armed conflict. Three times as many have been permanently disabled or seriously injured."
— The Invisible Soldiers: Child Combatants2, Defense Monitor Brief, Center for Defense Information, Volume XXVI, Number 4, July 1997
Another aspect of military activities around the world which often goes unmentioned, is the use of children in the military3 and the effects military conflicts have. The easily available small arms4 make it easier for children to use weapons. In some countries, children as young as 105 have been recruited into a conflict. In many places children grow up knowing only violence6 as their parents inflict their anger from conflicts onto their children.
An often overlooked problem is also regarding the demobilization7 and reintegration into society8 of these children, who are often severely traumatized, after a conflict has ended -- especially when that society may be the very same one where these young children may have been forced to fight and kill9.
The UN had been trying to get the Security Council to publicly condemn10 any military that uses children in any way for a conflict.
According to UNICEF11: Recent developments in warfare have significantly heightened the dangers for children. During the last decade, it is estimated (and these figures, while specific, are necessarily orders of magnitude) that child victims have included:
- 2 million killed;
- 4-5 million disabled;
- 12 million left homeless;
- more than 1 million orphaned or separated from their parents;
- some 10 million psychologically traumatized.
There are an estimated 120,000 child soldiers in Africa12. This is nearly half the total of 300,000 around the world. In April 1999, there was a meeting in Maputo, Mozambique where a declaration to stop the use of child soldiers was made. Almost all the required number of countries to put it into effect have ratified it with the hope that it would be one more step to reduce and eventually eliminate the use of children as soldiers in Africa.
The International Labor Organization (ILO), in its 1999 Conference13, proposed a Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention. While it had almost been adopted it failed to disallow the use of children in armed conflicts. This was because Australia, Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, San Marino, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States were all opposed to the notion which would have prevented children under 18 from being involved in what Amnesty International describe14 as the most hazardous and exploitative forms of child labor.
However, at the beginning of 2000, after what Human Rights Watch termed as "the first time the United States has ever agreed to change its practices in order to support a human rights standard", a new accord was achieved banning the use of child combatants15. It took over six years of negotiations, but governments agreed on a treaty establishing eighteen as the minimum age for participating in armed conflicts. The US has usually opposed eighteen as the minimum age, because it has routinely deployed seventeen year-olds to the fields of conflict.
But other countries still employ children in their military. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has some additional optional protocols, such as the the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the involvement of children in armed conflicts16.
- The Protocol also clarifies that 18 years is the minimum age for direct participation in hostilities, for compulsory recruitment and for any recruitment by non-governmental armed groups.
- However, many nations, including wealthy and powerful countries such as UK have contentious issues when it comes to such additional protocols, especially in terms of the use of child combatants.
- For example as Amnesty International reported, the United Kingdom in June 2003, "formally ratified an important child rights treaty - pledging to try to avoid deploying its under-age soldiers into active combat - but then also undermined the treaty's purpose by reserving wide discretion to use young people in battle." In addition, Amnesty also noted that No other European country apart from the UK deploys under-18s17. The Convention defines a child to be anyone under the age of 18 unless national laws indicate otherwise. In the UK's case, the age of 18 is the age to vote, and as Amnesty International states in another article this implies children in the UK are old enough to kill but too young to vote18.
A report19 from the International Coalition to Stop the use of Child Soldiers, released June 2001, mentions that overall, the situation has improved in areas such as Latin America, the Balkans, and the Middle East in recent years, conflict levels have typically decreased (though not ended), while children are at risk in Africa and parts of Asia and the Pacific.
For more on children, military and child rights, the following links may be useful:
- Save the Children20
- The International Coalition to Stop the use of Child Soldiers21
web site. They have databases on country by country information on child soldiers and extensive reports on
a number of issues.
- UNICEF22 - The United Nations Children's Fund. They have a vast
amount of information available on line, including:
- The Convention on the Rights of the Child23.
- A report on the State of the World's Children, 199624 concentrates on war and conflicts with regards to children.
- A powerful documentary on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children25.
- OneWorld26 Guides to:
- The Children and Armed Conflict Unit30 from Essex University in
England has a variety of information, including publications, reports, articles and so on. Worth checking
- Human Rights Watch Campaign31 to stop the
use of child soldiers. Some interesting links include
- A map32 of the world where children are known to have been used.
- Some facts33 about the use of children in military conflicts around the world.
- A link to some testimonies of children34 who have taken part in conflicts -- one of them is a shocking account of how one boy had to kill another boy (who he knew) who had tried to escape from rebels.
- Center for Defense Information Resources:
- A section on child soldiers35
- Their transcript on a Child Combatant's Road to Recovery36
- A Defense Monitor brief about Child Combatants37.
- Boes.org38 is a site devoted to child rights.
- War: A Child's Game39 from Amnesty
International looks at the issue of child soldiers and campaigns to do away with this.
- Foreign Policy In Focus looks at the US role and policies in a report called
Use of Children as Soldiers40
- From the International Committee of the Red Cross web site, there is a large section called
Children In War41
- Child Rights Information Network42, provides information to support the
implemention of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
- Child Rights43 from this web site looks at additional issues.
(Note that listed here are only those hyperlinks to other articles from other web sites or elsewhere on this web site. Other sources such as journal, books and magazines, are mentioned above in the original text. Please also note that links to external sites are beyond my control. They might become unavailable temporarily or permanently since you read this, depending on the policies of those sites, which I cannot unfortunately do anything about.)
- Rachel Stohl, 'International Efforts Address Use of Child Soldiers', Weekly Defense Monitor, Center for Defense Information, Volume 2, Issue #27, July 9, 1998, http://www.cdi.org/weekly/1998/issue27/index.html#2
- Arms Trade: Small Arms, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade/SmallArms.asp
- Lansana Fofana, 'Militia Admits Recruiting Child Soldiers', Inter Press Service, June 29, 1998, http://www.oneworld.org/ips2/jul98/13_41_045.html
- 'Ban the use of child soldiers', Save The Children Fund Campaign, http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/campaigns/globalview/soldiers.html
- Lansana Fofana, 'Captured Child Soldiers Handed Over To Unicef', Inter Press Service, February 19, 1999, http://www.oneworld.org/ips2/feb99/17_00_051.html
- Stephen Sapienza and Rachel Stohl, 'Child Combatants: The Road to Recovery', Weekly Defense Monitor, Center for Defense Information, Volume 2, Issue #36, September 10, 1998, http://www.cdi.org/weekly/1998/Issue36/index.html#2
- 'Child Combatants: The Road to Recovery', Transcript of a Video Documentary for America's Defence Monitor, Center for Defence Information, 1998, http://www.cdi.org/adm/transcripts/1201/index.htm
- 'U.N. Seeks Security Council Action on Child Soldiers', Inter Press Service, June 29, 1998, http://www.oneworld.org/ips2/jul98/22_24_081.html
- 'Children in war', State of the World's Children 1996, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), http://www.unicef.org/sowc96/1cinwar.htm
- 'The Impact of Soldiering on Children', Child Soldiers; A Global Report, Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, May 2001, http://www.child-soldiers.org/cs/childsoldiers.nsf/f30d86b5e33403a180256ae500381213/c654714db75e84f880256ae50
- '87th Session, 1-17 June 1999', UN International Labour Organisation, http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc87/index.htm
- 'USA leads in blocking efforts to stop use of child soldiers', Amnesty International, AI INDEX: IOR 42/06/99, June 10, 1999, http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engior420061999
- 'New Treaty Bans Children in Combat', Human Rights Watch, January 22, 2000, http://www.hrw.org/press/2000/01/child0121.htm
- UN Treaty: 'Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child', Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/6/crc/treaties/opac.htm
- 'UK reserves option to use children in war, contrary to treaty', Amnesty International and Coalition to Stop the use of Child Soldiers, AI Index ACT 76/005/2003, News Service No: 157, June 20, 2003, http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGACT760052003?open&of=ENG-364
- 'A clear message from the United Nations that use of children in war is unacceptable', Amnesty International, Undated, http://web.amnesty.org/pages/childsoldiers-crc-eng
- 'Child Soldiers; A Global Report', Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, May 2001, http://www.child-soldiers.org/cs/childsoldiers.nsf/Report/Global%20Report%202001/%20GLOBAL%20REPORT%20CONTENT