Control of Resources; Supporting Dictators, Rise of Terrorism
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On this page:
- The historic struggle for control of resources
- The Middle East at the center for struggle over control of resources
- A divided people; The West's support for dictators and monarchies over democracies
- Political leaders are in between a rock and a hard place; the struggle for people's support
The historic struggle for control of resources
As we saw in the previous section1, for centuries, due to the power politics and struggle over the control of resources in the Middle East, various powers have supported numerous controversial regimes. The United States, Britain, France, and others supported dictatorships and monarchies, even overthrowing democracies.
To the populations back home the reason often given for this was for
containing the Soviet Union and so on. For the people of the region that had their popular leaders overthrown and replaced with corrupt rulers, this was surely not freedom. Communism was an often used reason around the world, not just the Middle East, even if it was not the case. As Noam Chomsky details, it was often a convenient excuse, but the underlying threat was often that nations might be able to use their own resources and be an example for others to follow.
Furthermore, what was going on around the world at the time of the end of the Second World War and the geopolitical changes that resulted are critical to understanding the policies and events in the Middle East. To summarize (notes for sources are below):
- With Europe weakened, the majority of the world, which was then under imperial and colonial rule, saw their chance to break free.
- Nationalist, revolutionary, and independence movements (some violent, some peaceful) all started to take hold and Europe had little ability to maintain control.
- The sole remaining power that was really intact after the Second World War was the United States.
- Allied with Europe, the U.S. helped them rebuild with a massive injection of capital. The U.S. was also an imperial power for the past few decades, as pointed out by numerous writers such as Mark Twain, Howard Zinn, Noam Chomsky, J.W. Smith, Walden Bello and many others. The U.S. was now the de facto leader of the West.
- The Soviet Union, on the other hand, having faced the brunt of Hitler's forces, (some 80 percent of his armies), like Europe, had lost a considerable amount and had been decimated; there was between 7 to 27 million dead, much industry and infrastructure had been destroyed, much agriculture and livestock had been destroyed, and so on. Like most of the world breaking free, it did not have much economic assistance to rebuild, but was still able to recover quickly to partake in a terrible Cold War (see J.W. Smith quoted below, for more on this).
- Due to its rapid development and power, the Soviet Union additionally threatened to be an example for the other newly free nations that rapid independent development was possible. But this also meant a massive diversion of the traditional resources that had been flowing out of the global South, to those
imperial centers of capital.
- To the West, then, the Soviet Union, from the start (decades earlier) was seen as
evilwhile to the third world, it was perhaps seen as an example that independent development was possible. It may not have necessarily been seen as a direct model to follow (as its economic policies were flawed, even without the diversion of the Cold War, as well as the horrors and massacres resulting from the paranoia of Stalin, etc), but it was the idea that a nation could develop somewhat successfully, quickly, and without much assistance, that was a real threat to the West's historic source of resources. Indeed, the Non-aligned Movement was as such yet another alternative, for example.
countrysidewas reclaiming its resources.
The centuries-old view of the South, from the perspective of the West, was now changing. As Chomsky describes, almost with cruel humor, the South was viewed as a service provider, and if possible that was what had to be maintained, in order to preserve the wealth and balance of power:
As J.W. Smith points out, with the weakening of the former Imperial European powers from World War II,
Virtually the entire colonial world was breaking free and their resources would be turned to the care of their own people and no longer could be siphoned to the old imperial centers of capital for a fraction of its value.
The result of this is further described just by the chapter title itself from J.W. Smith: The World Breaking Free Frightened The Security Councils of Every Western Nation3, Economic Democracy; The Political Struggle of the Twenty-First Century (1st Books, 2002, Second Edition), Chapter 7. (The previous link is a link to the reposting of that chapter. The entire book can be read on line as well.)
This control of resources being the main concern was recognized by the U.S. policy planners and was a major aspect of foreign policy strategy after World War II. Consider for example, George Kennan, head of the US State Department planning staff until 1950, and his comments on US relations with Far East:
The Cold War, then, as well as being a struggle against Communism, also provided an appropriate pretext for actions by the West around the world (led by the United States) that could be attributed to the claims of Soviet involvement, even if there wasn't any. Chomsky is worth quoting again:
Many nations that were subsequently destabilized by the Americans, British and others were claimed to be due to this Soviet threat, but in many cases (not all), there was no Soviet involvement. In many cases, these were just nations that had gained their freedom trying to develop. In fact, many did not want to follow the Soviet example of centralized planning. (And, as J.W. Smith details in the above-mentioned book and further on in that above-cited chapter, the Soviets themselves realized that their economic system needed changes a few decades later.)
As Smith, Chomsky and others detail, some turned to the U.S. for guidance, given the very good Constitution and other principles. The U.S. helped in some cases, not in others. For some, then, where help was not available, they either turned to the Soviets (the other superpower which had resources to help), or to themselves.
Independent development threatened the loss of power, influence and cheap raw materials for the powerful nations. The Vietnam experience suggested that an empire of the type that Britain once had was not likely to be politically feasible. So instead, a new strategy was needed. As Stephen Zunes describes7,
the Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine or "surrogate strategy") came into being, wherein Vietnamization [reliance on South Vietnamese conscripts and a dramatically increased air war that minimized American casualties] evolved into a global policy of arming and training third world allies to become regional gendarmes for American interests. Many rulers in the third world have been supported into power as a result.(* See below for some sources detailing this perspective and history)
The Middle East at the center for struggle over control of resources
The Middle East, then, has been quite important, geopolitically, due to the resources, and oil in particular.
- Because this has formed a backbone to the wealth of many nations today, maintaining control of those resources has been paramount. Hence, presence in the Middle East is for
stabilityof oil flows:
- Any chance that those resources would be used in different ways is naturally a threat to those who currently benefit.
- Furthermore, was there a chance that the Soviet Union could get influence in the Middle East, resources would have been further been taken away from the influence and control of the West, as Smith highlights:
- As a standard policy of state, nations have to keep an eye on such things.
- In the geopolitically and ideologically charged chess games, such
threats, if possible, must be
The stronger, more powerful nations are obviously better equipped with more political, economic and military means. Therefore, they can be more effective in getting and ensuring their way. This makes sense from a power politics perspective. One of the main responsibilities (if not the main one) for heads of states is to ensure their nations
interests are met. Diplomacy and so forth are directed by such interests.
Hence, as mentioned above, those
frightened security councils were frightened at the prospect of losing more control. To them, their
freedom was at stake. Yet, not mentioned to the populations back home was that this
freedom was based on centuries of war and conquest and in the Middle East this was all about control of resources and geopolitical power. Hence, the freedom of some was based on
non-freedom of others. (See also this web site's section on behind consumption10 which provides more statistics and details of economic policies that lead to this skewed use of resources around the globe.)
The United States and Western Europe were therefore prepared to protect one of the sources of their wealth and power. They was prepared to go to many lengths to do so. For example,
- Massive amounts of capital injection direct, and indirect, via Japan and international institutions, helped in developing and extending freedoms to various other East Asian nations. This would serve to
containthreats such as Soviet expansion. Wars were fought, or dictators supported, if needed. (See Smith, Chomsky, Gowan, Bello, etc. mentioned below in the sources for more details.)
- Throughout Latin America and Africa, various democracies were overthrown and dictators supported, or malleable
pseudodemocracies were supported. (See the Noam Chomsky Archive, also mentioned below, for far more details, including detailed research on destabilization of various Latin American democracies that did not have Soviet influence that was claimed. See also this site's section on conflicts in Africa11, and on the arms trade12.)
- In the Middle East, control of natural resources has been centuries-old politics. It had not changed, although the players may have, slightly.
Indian author and Booker Prize winner, Arundhati Roy, describes in the British newspaper, The Guardian, the result of American sponsored actions:
millions killed in Korea, Vietnam and Cambodia, the 17,500 killed when Israel — backed by the US — invaded Lebanon in 1982, the 200,000 Iraqis killed in Operation Desert Storm, the thousands of Palestinians who have died fighting Israel's occupation of the West Bank. And the millions who died, in Yugoslavia, Somalia, Haiti, Chile, Nicaragua, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Panama, at the hands of all the terrorists, dictators and genocidists whom the American government supported, trained, bankrolled and supplied with arms. And this is far from being a comprehensive list. (Arundhati Roy, The algebra of infinite justice13, The Guardian, September 29, 2001)
With almost all the above, as researched heavily by Chomsky, Smith and others, these were nations where there was a possibly successful independent development; independent from Western influence and, in many cases, independent from Soviet influence. However, the Soviet/communist excuse was used as a pretext for these interventions. Various well-known criminals and human rights abusers were trained by the United States, for example. The School of the Americas14 is a well known example of this, as also mentioned on this web site (see the previous link). The United States therefore participated directly, or indirectly, in many wars and conflicts. In the Middle East, it was no different. William Blum, investigative journalist, and former employee at the U.S. State Department, where he resigned in 1967 over the Vietnam war is worth quoting here:
A divided people; The West's support for dictators and monarchies over democracies
Already, before World War II, as mentioned in the previous section, various monarchs had been put in place in various countries whose borders had been defined mainly by British and French colonial administrations. Many monarchs were not even local. They were the ones that could be allied to the imperial rulers and counted on to control local populations. As Britain had learned for decades, and so sharply remembered by people of India, large populations could be controlled by relatively tiny administrations by
divide and conquer tactics keeping or creating antagonism between local groups, keeping borders small and so on, so as to make uniting as difficult as possible. (Of course, it proved not to be impossible.) It is worth quoting Smith again, to highlight the geopolitical significance of this:
(Side NoteNote also Smith's reference to a
neo-mercantilist world as opposed to what is often referred to as free trade. Globalization, then, for many around the world is seen as a sophisticated continuation of plunder, but through economic means. That is, it is seen by many as a continuation of subtle monopoly capitalism compared to free market capitalism, as it is often claimed to be. For more on that angle, see this site's section on poverty, trade and globalization16.)
In this web site's section's Africa introduction17, it is pointed out how in 1885, the Berlin Conference saw the European nations create borders in Africa that met the interests of the Europeans, and allowed them to try to share the spoils of Africa between them. European culture at that time had already labeled the African people and their cultures as non-civilized and not having rights, and hence justified such things as slavery, carving up borders as they saw fit, etc. As mentioned earlier, Middle Eastern people (Arabs and Jews) were also likewise described in negative light for centuries to justify action and exploitation there.
European geopolitics in the earlier half of the 20th century in the wider Middle East region contributed to a lot of instability overall and to a similar carve up that Africa had experienced just a few decades earlier, and is still coming to grips with. The British Empire, especially, played a major role in the region. During World War I, in 1916, it convinced Arab leaders to revolt against the Ottoman Empire (which was allied with Germany). In return, the British government would support the establishment of an independent Arab state in the region, including Palestine. Yet, in contradiction to this, in 1917, Lord Arthur Balfour, the British Foreign Minister, issued a declaration (the Balfour Declaration). This announced the British Empire's support for the establishment of
a Jewish national home in Palestine.
As a further complication, there was a deal between Imperial Britain and France to carve up the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire and divide control of the region. The spoils of war were to be shared. As in 1885 in the Berlin Conference where Africa was carved up amongst the various European empires, parts of the Middle East were to also be carved up, which would require artificial borders, support of monarchies, dictators and other leaders that could be regarded as
puppets or at least could be influenced by these external powers.
But also as with Africa, the imposition of artificial borders, unpopular rulers etc would not be accepted without struggle and following World War II, the region became even more important for its energy sources.
In the Middle East, the Arab people had a common faith that bound them together. This meant that even more extreme measures for subjugation and control would be needed. One such result was the extremely heavy militarization of the region. Millions of dollars worth of weapons were poured in to support the puppet regimes. As described in the arms trade18 section of this web site, it is still the most heavily militarized region in the world, with the majority of military
aid going to that region, from the powerful nations.
With harsh rulers and authoritarian regimes like the Monarchy of Saudi Arabia, or the Shah of Iran, counter-militancy and falling back on the most extremist interpretations of Islam resulted. Extreme militarization was resulting in extreme militancy and fanaticism.
As also detailed in the previous section, an Iranian revolution took hold in 1979 with the Ayatollah Khomeini and an extremist Islamic state being formed. In a documentary on PBS in 2000, (I do not recall exactly when, unfortunately), those women interviewed had initially supported the revolution because of the oppression of the Shah. They had believed that the revolution would lead them to a better future. However, in just a few years, they were to find that one form of extremism had been replaced by another, and women in general had not gained as they thought they would. (In recent months or years, it seems that the Iranian government is trying to become more moderate. Future developments, geopolitics and time will tell how that turns out.) Throughout the region, various human rights groups have documented the harsh conditions and lack of progress in development for many in those societies.
However, from this Islamic revolution (and other such struggles), combined with the feeling of hopelessness of other avenues, the perverted realization that Islamic extremism, anti-West sentiments etc may hold the answer, started to ferment.
In addition, as detailed further below, as part of the Cold War, the U.S. via Pakistan helped develop and train Islamic extremist mujahdeen fighters in an attempt to destabilize the Soviet Union. The religious call for mujahadeen fighters also attracted extremists from the Middle East (such as Osama Bin Laden and others).
The National Security Archives project at the George Washington University published declassified U.S. documents revealing the extent of U.S. propaganda efforts19 in the Middle East during the early years of the Cold War. While not as effective as would have been preferred, it gives an idea of the extent to which the U.S. was willing to go to gain support for geopolitical and ideological purposes.
Many in the region see the oppression from their leaders coming from the support by the West, America in particular. In some of the regimes friendly to the United States, some of the worst human rights abuses are described.
Turkey is one such example:
- While one of the more democratic regimes, it has had a long conflict with neighbours, and segements of its own people, such as Kurd separatists.
- As mentioned20 on this site, and pointed out by Amnesty International and others, there have been over 30,000 deaths in the last 14 years in the struggle and conflict against the Kurds.
the overwhelming number of these 30,000 deaths, not to mention widespread mutilation and rape, are the responsibility of the Turkish military, as the British newspaper, The Guardian, points out21.
- Turkey, as mentioned in this web site's arms trade section, is one of the largest recipients of US military aid.
Saudi Arabia is another example, as all these reports22 by Amnesty International testify to.
In other cases, regimes that have previously been friendly to the United States have been supported for geopolitical reasons, regardless of how they treat and rule over their people. Only when they have gone too far (i.e. affected
national interests) are they demonized or in some ways regarded as hostile (often appropriately so).
Iraq is an example of this:
- As described by various links in this web site's section on Iraq, when Sadam Hussain committed his murderous acts of gassing Kurds and others in his own land, and in the war against Iran, using chemical and biological weapons etc, it was during the time of U.S. support of Sadam to wage war against Iran and the new revolution.
- The weapons and technology for biological and chemical weapons had come from the West.
In the geopolitical context, support for Iraq was due to the threat of loss of dominance and access to resources in the Middle East. As the Washington Post highlights:
- The invasion of Kuwait and the resulting Gulf War allowed the U.S. to highlight these crimes but without mentioning how he had been able to get these means.
- Furthermore, the Gulf War saw the death of an estimated 200,000 Iraqi's, 100,000 of which were civilian.
- And since the sanctions, the United Nations point out that 1,000,000 people have died and UNICEF points out that some half a million children have died, some 5000 per month, to which Madeline Albright has commented on public television that this price was
- The U.S. and U.K. are largely the ones keeping the sanctions in place, despite objections from other nations and resignations of U.N. programme coordinators over this.
- These sanctions have turned out to be a weapon of mass destruction!
- Arab people throughout the Middle East are naturally infuriated to see their own people suffering (all while Sadam Hussein remains unaffected).
- See the Iraq24 section on this site for more details and sources. (See also Gowan, sourced below.)
Afghanistan is another:
- As is well known and accepted now, the CIA aided and funded terrorist regimes, such as the mujahadin and Osama Bin Laden, with the aid of Pakistan, to get the Soviets involved in Afghanistan and to ultimately help defeat them.
- The vile and extremist Taliban were in power in Afghanistan, accused of terrible human rights violations (especially against women), oppressive extremist religious practices, and so on. (See for example, all the Amnesty International Afghanistan reports25 for more details.)
- It is a large conduit for illegal drugs as well.
Some aspects have not escaped the mainstream media either. America's NBC, for example, captures the result of all this quite well:
Roy describes a sickening twist of power politics in light of the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11:
Israel has always been a sensitive issue. For regional support, as mentioned earlier, the West has often sought support, in the forms of likeable dictators/monarchs etc. It has even supported and fueled wars against each other. Israel has been another country that has received enormous amounts of military aid.
- The peace process, the Arabs have felt, has been grossly one sided28, with the influential U.S. constantly backing the side of Israel as pointed out by Chomsky in the previous link.
- Ordinary Arab citizens have additionally been extremely frustrated at their own leaders for not helping Palestinians.
- Those states or organizations that have provided support, including for example, Lebanon29, the Hizbollah, Syria, etc. have been branded unofficially or officially, terrorist or
roguestates. (Sometimes, justifiably, and such crimes should not be belittled, either.)
An often-heard argument in the West is that Arabs have got themselves in this plight because of their constant bickering and disunity. This is partly true, but this almost blanket statement negates this larger history and complications of political maneuverings and support for various regimes (by the West as well). (See this web site's section on the Palestine/Israel30 conflict for more links and sources on that issue.) Furthermore, a part of the disunity comes from the frustration and disagreement on how to handle what they see as unilateral U.S. interests in the region. Supporting Israel
no matter what has further infuriated Arab citizens:
The following list from Stephen Shalom lists some specific incidents of U.S. policy in the Middle East since the Second World War ended32. (The original article also points out that this list misses out other long term policies such as those mentioned above. Nonetheless, it begins to give an idea why there is anti-West sentiment and anti-US in particular, in the Middle East.)
- 1948: Israel established. U.S. declines to press Israel to allow expelled Palestinians to return.
- 1949: CIA backs military coup deposing elected government of Syria.
- 1953: CIA helps overthrow the democratically-elected Mossadeq government in Iran (which had nationalized the British oil company) leading to a quarter-century of repressive and dictatorial rule by the Shah, Mohammed Reza Pahlevi.
- 1956: U.S. cuts off promised funding for Aswan Dam in Egypt after Egypt receives Eastern bloc arms.
- 1956: Israel, Britain, and France invade Egypt. U.S. does not support invasion, but the involvement of its NATO allies severely diminishes Washington's reputation in the region.
- 1958: U.S. troops land in Lebanon to preserve
- early 1960s: U.S. unsuccessfully attempts assassination of Iraqi leader, Abdul Karim Qassim.
- 1963: U.S. reported to give Iraqi Ba'ath party (soon to be headed by Saddam Hussein) names of communists to murder, which they do with vigor.
- 1967-: U.S. blocks any effort in the Security Council to enforce SC Resolution 242, calling for Israeli withdrawal from territories occupied in the 1967 war.
- 1970: Civil war between Jordan and PLO. Israel and U.S. prepare to intervene on side of Jordan if Syria backs PLO.
- 1972: U.S. blocks Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat's efforts to reach a peace agreement with Israel.
- 1973: Airlifted U.S. military aid enables Israel to turn the tide in war with Syria and Egypt.
- 1973-75: U.S. supports Kurdish rebels in Iraq. When Iran reaches an agreement with Iraq in 1975 and seals the border, Iraq slaughters Kurds and U.S. denies them refuge. Kissinger secretly explains that
covert action should not be confused with missionary work.
- 1975: U.S. vetoes Security Council resolution condemning Israeli attacks on Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon.
- 1978-79: Iranians begin demonstrations against the Shah. U.S. tells Shah it supports him
without reservationand urges him to act forcefully. Until the last minute, U.S. tries to organize military coup to save the Shah, but to no avail.
- 1979-88: U.S. begins covert aid to Mujahideen in Afghanistan six months before Soviet invasion in Dec. 1979. Over the next decade U.S. provides training and more than $3 billion in arms and aid.
- 1980-88: Iran-Iraq war. When Iraq invades Iran, the U.S. opposes any Security Council action to condemn the invasion. U.S. soon removes Iraq from its list of nations supporting terrorism and allows U.S. arms to be transferred to Iraq. At the same time, U.S. lets Israel provide arms to Iran and in 1985 U.S. provides arms directly (though secretly) to Iran. U.S. provides intelligence information to Iraq. Iraq uses chemical weapons in 1984; U.S. restores diplomatic relations with Iraq. 1987 U.S. sends its navy into the Persian Gulf, taking Iraq's side; an overly-aggressive U.S. ship shoots down an Iranian civilian airliner, killing 290.
- 1981, 1986: U.S. holds military maneuvers off the coast of Libya in waters claimed by Libya with the clear purpose of provoking Qaddafi. In 1981, a Libyan plane fires a missile and two Libyan planes shot down. In 1986, Libya fires missiles that land far from any target and U.S. attacks Libyan patrol boats, killing 72, and shore installations. When a bomb goes off in a Berlin nightclub, killing two Americans, the U.S. charges that Qaddafi was behind it (possibly true) and conducts major bombing raids in Libya, killing dozens of civilians, including Qaddafi's adopted daughter.
- 1982: U.S. gives
green lightto Israeli invasion of Lebanon, killing some 17 thousand civilians. U.S. chooses not to invoke its laws prohibiting Israeli use of U.S. weapons except in self-defense. U.S. vetoes several Security Council resolutions condemning the invasion.
- 1983: U.S. troops sent to Lebanon as part of a multinational peacekeeping force; intervene on one side of a civil war, including bombardment by USS New Jersey. Withdraw after suicide bombing of marine barracks.
- 1984: U.S.-backed rebels in Afghanistan fire on civilian airliner.
- 1987-92: U.S. arms used by Israel to repress first Palestinian Intifada. U.S. vetoes five Security Council resolution condemning Israeli repression.
- 1988: Saddam Hussein kills many thousands of his own Kurdish population and uses chemical weapons against them. The U.S. increases its economic ties to Iraq.
- 1988: U.S. vetoes 3 Security Council resolutions condemning continuing Israeli occupation of and repression in Lebanon.
- 1990-91: U.S. rejects any diplomatic settlement of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait (for example, rebuffing any attempt to link the two regional occupations, of Kuwait and of Palestine). U.S. leads international coalition in war against Iraq. Civilian infrastructure targeted. To promote
stabilityU.S. refuses to aid post-war uprisings by Shi'ites in the south and Kurds in the north, denying the rebels access to captured Iraqi weapons and refusing to prohibit Iraqi helicopter flights.
- 1991-: Devastating economic sanctions are imposed on Iraq. U.S. and Britain block all attempts to lift them. Hundreds of thousands die. Though Security Council had stated that sanctions were to be lifted once Saddam Hussein's programs to develop weapons of mass destruction were ended, Washington makes it known that the sanctions would remain as long as Saddam remains in power. Sanctions in fact strengthen Saddam's position. Asked about the horrendous human consequences of the sanctions, Madeleine Albright (U.S. ambassador to the UN and later Secretary of State) declares that
the price is worth it.
- 1993-: U.S. launches missile attack on Iraq, claiming self-defense against an alleged assassination attempt on former president Bush two months earlier.
- 1998: U.S. and U.K. bomb Iraq over the issue of weapons inspections, even though Security Council is just then meeting to discuss the matter.
- 1998: U.S. destroys factory producing half of Sudan's pharmaceutical supply, claiming retaliation for attacks on U.S. embassies in Tanzania and Kenya and that factory was involved in chemical warfare. U.S. later acknowledges lack of evidence for the chemical warfare charge.
- 2000-: Israel uses U.S. arms in attempt to crush Palestinian uprising, killing hundreds of civilians.
(See also works from the above-mentioned William Blum for a similar list as well. As an example, see his book, Rogue State, (Common Courage Press, 2000).)
This is not a complete set of examples, but not atypical of the region either. As also mentioned in the previous section, numerous areas in the region were carved into different territories with monarchs put there. Not all were necessarily oppressive in physical ways. Some restricted cultural, political, and/or economic freedoms. The net result was they did not (and do not) necessarily represent (or perhaps even respect) the actual people of the region entirely.
Furthermore, with the large commissions that accompany arms sales, and the heavy militarization, many accuse their leaders of being easily corruptible. There has also been frustration that the Arab leaders are divided, interested in their own power games within their region and hence unable to unite or present one voice on many issues, including Palestine/Israel.
In that respect, after decades of this, some have felt limited options of where to turn; religion has failed them, their leaders have failed them, those that tried are either seen as bought out, or isolated or in some way not delivering. Fanatics and militants see easy recruitment for their causes, as a result. Hatred is easy to teach. Extremist views are easier to preach (especially with the success of Afghanistan and the Taliban regime in fighting off the Soviets, another feared power).
With the Cold War over and the West victorious, globalization in its current form was able to spread further. Conflicts also broke out between nations that were within the sphere of Soviet influence, especially in Central Asia, where many were Islamic. Extremist regimes and organizations were involved in participating in those conflicts for separation.
In addition, with globalization, came the increasing spread of western culture to the global South. In the Middle East as well, western products and more importantly, culture, was coming in more so. While around the world, not just the Middle East there has been increasing concern at what is described as
33, because of the extremes in the Middle East, for the extremists and fanatics, this has added to the concerns and anti-West feelings that have spilled into violent actions and hatred.
Hardly touched upon on this page has been the economic policies that have accompanied these geopolitical policies. Harsh Structural Adjustment34 imposition on the Third World for example, as described on this site (see previous link), has deepened poverty for most in the world. Walden Bello, professor of sociology and public administration at the University of the Philippines, and co-director of Thailand-based research organization, Focus on the Global South, describes the harsh geopolitical ramifications well:
The political economy of globalization therefore has been accompanied by all nations vying to best represent their interests. Of course, the more powerful and stronger nations are better able to represent their interests, which can also have the effect of undermining others. The United States being the most successful and powerful nation on the international political scene therefore weilds incredible power and influence, as Professor Wade of the prestigious London School of Economics, for example, vividly highlights:
Because we live in such times, it is hard to see or accept that today's global political system, from the perspective of many in the third world, is a continuation of the system of previous decades and centuries, but of course evolved with its own nuances and complexities. Oftentimes, then, military solutions and other aggressive courses of actions are supported without understanding or considering the deeper and long term causes of various situations. S. Brian Willson, a U.S. Vietnam War veteran, now a peace activist highlights an aspect of this quite well:
Such factors in the Middle East on top of the heavy militarism and political oppression have also contributed to extremism.
Political leaders are in between a rock and a hard place; the struggle for people's support
Political leaders throughout various regions, be it the Middle East, or Western countries, are in a tough situation, on many fronts. The following is perhaps an oversimplified number of fronts but gives a hint of the challenges:
- The people front
- Democracy or no democracy, people can and will only take so much. At some point, they will rise up and ask for their demands to be met. This can be via democratic processes, or through various movements, violent or peaceful.
- The extremist front
- There are always extremists on all sides, everywhere. They are able to exert some influence, to varying degrees and try to garnish popular support if possible. This can be very destabilizing depending on many circumstances and conditions.
- The corporate/geopolitical front
- There are various interests pulling at leaders to either do or not do something, in relation to some event. This might be to go to war, to enforce economic sanctions, some other form of diplomacy, or deal with such things coming at one's country from others. These interests are often not always the interests of the majority of people.
fronts also influencing the mainstream media of that nation/region, then other actors or some of these above actors can have more say, directly or indirectly. One such example is the arms industry37, as mentioned in this web site's section on that issue. (See this web site's section on the mainstream media38 for more examples.) Such influences can affect popular opinions and create support or lack of support on various issues. Gaining popular support or convincing the population has been of major importance. For dictators etc, such propaganda also serves to try to minimize the risk of an uprising. For democracies, where the media's democratic institutions are weak or subject to influences, propaganda can create support.
Hence, in the West, our perceptions of the Middle East are subject to these influences in the mainstream media and elsewhere, just as we point out how the perceptions of the West in the Middle East are subject to influences of extremism.
As a result of these decisions, lives of ordinary citizens, be it the West, Middle East, or elsewhere can be affected.
Stephen Zunes, associate professor of Politics and chair of the Peace & Justice Studies Program at the University of San Francisco, as well as a senior policy analyst and Middle East editor for the Foreign Policy in Focus Project is worth quoting here, in light of the September 11, 2001 atrocity and resulting actions:
(There are many more examples of incidents and support of regimes, overthrowing popular leaders and replacing with dictators etc, which are not mentioned here, but the sources and links provided detail. Over time, more will be added to this page. None of this justifies terrorism, violence, or killing of innocent civilians, but does try and provide some additional context.)
* Some notes on the explanation of the Cold War, the threat of nations breaking free, using resources more themselves, and the continuing geopolitical struggle for control of access to those resources and the real containment, etc:
Numerous declassified documents also confirm this history, as well as works by many researchers for years. This has been understood for decades by peoples of the third world, even though this sounds completely opposite to what we have grown up knowing in the West. Yet, from the view point of the elite of the West, their claims were partly true; that is, their concerns were founded in some reality; that they risked losing their resource base from which a large part of their wealth came, from where the industrial engines for their economies were, and are, fueled.
The actions of the West, such as supporting dictators or killing civilians are always explained away as necessary to fight a larger evil, etc. Yet, other regions are not afforded such excuses (rightly so). It is to highlight though, that like any other regions and peoples, the West too have been involved in crimes against humanity. Hence, a more honest acceptance and look at this is needed to understand others perception of the West as well as better options and policies for the future, if peace and social justice for all is the end goal.
In the context of this page, looking at the geopolitical aspects of the Middle East and why there was outside support, I have of course glossed over many important aspects of the wider Cold War, while saying some things which may seem controversial and just treating it as a passing comment! Hence, the following sources, of course by no means exhaustive, are though, themselves very detailed and also provide many more detailed sources to follow for more information:
- Noam Chomsky Archive40 provides many articles and online books written by Noam Chomsky, a prominent political analyst. He is a professor of linguistics at MIT.
- Institute for Economic Democracy41 provides a detailed account of the last 800 years or so of the battles over the control of resources and the causes of poverty world wide (as well as ideas on how to solve them based on a more democratic and cooperative form of capitalism).
- The National Security Archive42 from George Washington University archives declassified U.S. documents, based on the Freedom of Information Act.
- Food First43 has published many books and articles that describe the gains made in development by various countries before they faced coups, destabilizations, overthrows of leaders and so on.
- Emperors Clothes44 web site provides a large number of articles on geopolitics and foreign policy issues.
- Peter Gowan, Global Gamble, (Verso Press, 1999), in particular, chapter 8.
- ZMagazine's MidEast Watch45 provides many articles.
- Walden Bello, Shea Cunningham, Bill Rau, Dark Victory; The United States and Global Poverty, foreword by Susan George, (Food First, Pluto Press, 1994, 1999)
- Killing civilians to show that killing civilians is wrong46 by Zoltan Grossman gives a briefing on the history of U.S. military interventions, in wake of the September 11, 2000 terrorist attacks on the United States.
- Elsewhere on this web site are other sections discussing related issues, where yet more sources are available:
I thought it would be worth also addressing what some might describe as conspiracy theory here. With the numerous films and television programs like The Matrix, The X-files, etc, it is easy to read all this and think this is some sort of elaborate conspiracy theory. It is not. In fact, as these sources also show, this is a deeper study of institutional powers, power abuse by states, ideologies and belief systems. From a Western perspective these are hard to accept (as I initially found myself), but from other cultures' perspectives (and digging back to understanding from my own Eastern culture's perspectives), these processes have been understood informally for generations, through unfortunate experiences. The sources listed above are more systematic analysis of such perspectives and also address this issue. For additional examples of discussion on these differences between conspiracies and analysis of power see the following:
- Conspiracy Theory; A problem to avoid51 by Michael Albert, ZMagazine
- Noam Chomsky Archive52 has a large collection of articles and on line books that relate to this issue as well.
- Bello, sourced above, in particular Chapter 1, pp. 3 - 4.
- Institute for Economic Democracy53, mentioned above, provides a systematic look at the factors behind the struggle for the control of resources over the past centuries, including power politics, belief systems and so forth.
- Mainstream Media54 from this web site provides a look at some of the problems within the current system that affects the influences and perspectives that dominate the media. This does not directly deal with conspiracies as such, but looks at some of the systemic problems that affect a more open and democratic media. Concentration of ownership, for example leads to a reduction in diversity of views, and while there is intense debate and freedom of discussion within those views, reduction in diversity leads to narrowing perspectives, and easily missing out wider and additional issues, etc.
Does this imply the world's people are always doomed to power struggles by various regions, regimes and/or cultures? Well, with the scarcity mentality — that there aren't enough resources to go around, and we have to watch out for number one — and the fear of changing one's living standards, then perhaps yes. However, as described in the behind consumption55 section of this web site, there is such an incredible amount of waste of capital, labor and resources within the system (in part to maintain and support these power struggles) that the technological and other gains we have made in efficiency are not really being realized. And yet, for some time now we have had the means to share these gains, but also importantly, to eliminating the waste. Further, living standards would not need to drop much at all. On top of that, all can gain economic rights and freedoms, not just some twenty percent of humanity. A threat of this idea is that power and influence is shared and dissipated. Of course, summarizing an entire section here in a few sentences glosses over many details and problems, which is introduced in more detail in the above-mentioned section.
The last thing to quickly address here, is that with the mention of waste elimination and sharing in the previous paragraph and with the look at the power play of the Cold War, it is easy to conclude that my suggestions are some how Marxist or communist. I can only repy by saying they are not. In fact, the sharing of wealth does not mean totalitarian, centralized planning to ensure this happens. It does not mean taking away rights. It implies addressing excessive and unfair, or unequal, rights of some that have been at the direct expense of others. It implies elimination of subtle concentrations of ownerships and monopolies to allow a more cooperative and democratic capitalism to be given a chance. It implies extending rights to everyone, not denying rights to over half of humanity. For far more depth in this area, visit the Institute for Economic Democracy56 web site.
[Note also that the use of a country name or region often implies the government. That is, often mentioned is something like
the U.S. did this or
Iraq did that, etc, when it is usually implied to be the political leaders. This is commonly done in news analysis. (For example, a journalist might write,
Today Switzerland declared, when obviously a given country itself is not capable of declaring anything!)]
- Middle East: A 1300 Year Struggle for Control of Resources
- Middle East and North Africa Unrest
- Control of Resources; Supporting Dictators, Rise of Terrorism
- Energy Security
- Crisis in Libya
- Syria Unrest
- Iraq—2003 onwards; War, Aftermath and Post-Saddam
- US/UK Buildup for War on Iraq
- Iraq—Post 1991 Persian Gulf War/Sanctions
(Note that listed here are only those hyperlinks to other articles from other web sites or elsewhere on this web site. Other sources such as journal, books and magazines, are mentioned above in the original text. Please also note that links to external sites are beyond my control. They might become unavailable temporarily or permanently since you read this, depending on the policies of those sites, which I cannot unfortunately do anything about.)
- Middle East: A 1300 Year Struggle for Control of Resources, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast/1300.asp
- J.W. Smith, 'The World Breaking Free Frightened The Security Councils of Every Western Nation', 1st Books, June 2002, Chapter 7. [Link is to online reposting of the entire book, from the Institute for Economic Democracy], http://www.ied.info/books/ed/breakingfree.html
- Stephen Zunes, 'Continuing Storm: The U.S. Role in the Middle East', Foreign Policy In Focus, October 30, 2001, http://www.foreignpolicy-infocus.org/papers/mideast/gulf.html
- Behind Consumption and Consumerism, http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Consumption.asp
- Conflicts in Africa, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Africa.asp
- The Arms Trade: A Major Cause of Suffering, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade.asp
- Arundhati Roy, 'The algebra of infinite justice', The Guardian, September 29, 2001, http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4266289,00.html
- Arms Trade: Training Human Rights Violators, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade/TrainingViolators.asp
- Trade Related Issues, http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/
- Conflicts In Africa, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Africa/Intro.asp
- Arms Trade: A Major Cause of Suffering, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade.asp
- 'U.S. Propaganda in the Middle East - The Early Cold War Version', National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 78, December 13, 2002 [Link is to reposted version], http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/WarOnTerror/USPropaganda.asp
- Kurds and Human Rights, http://www.globalissues.org/HumanRights/Abuses/Kurds.asp
- Harold Pinter, 'The Kurds have lifted the veil', The Guardian, February 20. 1999, http://www.guardian.co.uk/saturday_review/story/0,3605,312313,00.html
- Iraq, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast/Iraq.asp
- Noam Chomsky, 'The 'Peace Process' in the Middle East', Necessary Illusions, 1989, Chapter 4, http://www.zmag.org/chomsky/ni/ni-c10-s10.html
- Noam Chomsky, 'Israel, Lebanon, and the 'Peace Process'', April 23, 1996, http://www.zmag.org/chomsky/other/9604-israel.html
- Palestine/Israel, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast/Palestine.asp
- Stephen R. Shalom, 'The United States and Middle East: Why Do 'They' Hate Us?', http://www.zmag.org/shalomhate.htm
- David Rothkop, 'In Praise of Cultural Imperialism? Effects of Globalization on Culture', Foreign Policy, June 22, 1997, http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/globcult.htm
- Structural Adjustment Policies: A major cause of poverty, http://www.globalissues.org/article/3/structural-adjustment-a-major-cause-of-poverty
- Arms Trade Propaganda, http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade/ArmsPropaganda.asp
- Mainstream Media, http://www.globalissues.org/HumanRights/Media.asp
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