The Rise of Corporations
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- This page: http://www.globalissues.org/article/234/the-rise-of-corporations.
- To print all information (e.g. expanded side notes, shows alternative links), use the print version:
Today we know that corporations, for good or bad, are major influences on our lives. For example, of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations while only 49 are countries, based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs (See the facts page for more examples). In this era of globalization, marginalized people are becoming especially angry at the motives of multinational corporations, and corporate-led globalization is being met with increasing protest and resistance. How did corporations ever get such power in the first place?
[The section is a very broad and high-level overview of the history of corporations. It largely summarizes from the works of people like J.W. Smith, author of World’s Wasted Wealth II (Institute for Economic Democracy, 1994) and Economic Democracy; Political Struggle of the 21st Century (M.E. Sharpe, 2000); Giovanni Arrighi, The Long Twentieth Century (Verso Press, 1994 reprinted 2000); Richard Robbins, Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism (Allyn and Bacon, 1999). Of course, while I do recommend these sources, many, many other sources out there offer similar perspectives and insights.]
This web page has the following sub-sections:
The Rise of the Corporation
Corporations, as we tend to think of them, have been around for a few centuries, the earliest of which were chartered around the sixteenth century in places like England, Holland etc. Technically speaking, a corporation is what Robbins describes as a “social invention of the state” (Robbins: p.98). That is, a state grants a corporate charter, permitting private financial resources being used for public purposes. As Arrighi points out, this initial creation of private finance and merchants, etc was to aid in the expansion of a state to which it belonged, and as Arrighi and Smith detail, served to expand colonial and imperial interests to start with, as well as help in war efforts between empires.
The advantage of having a corporation over being an individual investing in trade voyages etc, was that an individual’s debts could be inherited by descendants (and hence, one could be jailed for debts of other family members, for example). A corporate charter however, was limited in its risks, to just the amount that was invested. A right not accorded to individuals. (Robbins: p.98)
Corporations had therefore the potential, from the onset, to become very powerful. Even Abraham Lincoln recognized this:
Adam Smith, in his famous book the Wealth of Nations, the “bible” of capitalism, was also critical of some aspects of corporate activity. He saw corporations as working to evade the laws of the market, trying to interfere with prices and controlling trade etc.
The Rights of the Corporation
As corporations did manage to increase their wealth and therefore political power, laws that initially tried to manage them were further relaxed. As Arrighi mentions throughout his book, corporations would benefit from the State’s war-making activities, further increasing their wealth and influence.
Yet, it was claiming of a corporation to be an individual in the United States in the 1800s, and claiming the same rights as a person that helped to provide for large expansion of corporate capitalism:
As Robbins further points out, from this ability to influence, “corporate libertarianism” emerged, which placed the rights and freedoms of corporations above that of individuals. This influence also led to cultural and economic ideologies known by numerous names such as neoliberal, libertarian economics, market capitalism, market liberalism etc.
Some of the guiding principles of this ideology, as Robbins continues, included:
- Sustained economic growth as the way to human progress
- Free markets without government “interference” would be the most efficient and socially optimal allocation of resources
- Economic globalization would be beneficial to everyone
- Privatization removes inefficiencies of public sector
- Governments should mainly function to provide the infrastructure to advance the rule of law with respect to property rights and contracts.
However, the assumptions behind these principles are questionable as much as the principles themselves. These assumptions, and how neoliberal ideology has developed into today’s free trade globalization is further discussed in the free trade section of this web site.
The Rise of Corporate Influence
From this “right” of the corporation, how has it affected the rights of others? Corporations in and of themselves may not be a bad thing. They can be engines of positive change. But, especially when they become excessively large, and concentrated in terms of ownership of an industry and in wealth, they can also be engines for negative change, as seems to have happened. There is of course, the common concern about the drive for profit as the end goal sometimes contradicting the social good, even though it is claimed that the “invisible hand” ensures the drive for profit is also good for society. Sometimes this has surely been the case. But other times, it has not.
There is much recognized and unrecognized corporate influence in our lives. Indeed, much of western culture and increasingly, around the world, consumerism is expanding.
Corporate influence can reach various parts of societies through various means, which many other entities don’t have the ability to do, as they lack the financial resources that corporations have:
- Influence on general populations via advertising and control and influence in the mainstream media.
- Influence on public policy and over governments, as hinted to above. This can range from financing large parts of elections, to creating corporate-funded think tanks and “citizen” groups, to support from very influential political bodies such as the Trilateral Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations and the Bilderberg group, etc.
- Influence on international institutions, such as the World Trade Organization, as well as international economic and political agreements.
Thom Hartmann, a writer and reporter, describes at length how corporations co-opted the use of human rights, in his book Unequal Protection: The Rise of Corporate Dominance and the Theft of Human Rights (Rodale Press, October 2002). It details the 1886 ruling also mentioned above on this page. With kind permission, a table contrasting implications before and after that ruling is reproduced here, from a summary page on the web site for the book:
|Before 1886: When Only Humans Had Human Rights||After 1886: After the Corporate Theft of Human Rights|
|Rights and Privileges||Only humans were “endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights” and those human rights included the right to free speech, the right to privacy, the right to silence in the face of accusation, and the right to live free of discrimination or slavery.||While to this day unions, churches, governments, and small unincorporated businesses do not have “human rights” (but only privileges humans give them), corporations alone have moved into the category with humans as claiming rights instead of just privileges.|
|Politics||In many states, it was a felony for corporations to give money to politicians, political parties, or try to influence elections: “They can’t vote, so what are they doing involved in politics?!”||Corporations claimed the human right of free speech, expanded that to mean the unlimited right to put corporate money into politics, and have thus taken control of our major political parties and politicians|
|Business||States and local communities had laws to protect and nurture entrepreneurs and local businesses, and to keep out companies that had been convicted of crimes.||Multi-state corporations claimed such laws were “discrimination” under the 14th Amendment (passed to free the slaves) and got such laws struck down; local communities can no longer stop a predatory corporation.|
|War||Government, elected by and for “We, The People,” made decisions about how armies would be equipped and, based on the will of the general populace, if and when we would go to war. Prior to WWII there were no permanent military manufacturing companies of significant size.||Military contractors grew to enormous size as a result of WWII and a permanent arms industry came into being, what Dwight Eisenhower called “the military/industrial complex.” It now lobbies government to buy its products and use them in wars around the world.|
|Regulation||Corporations had to submit to the scrutiny of the representatives of “We, The People,” our elected government.||Corporations have claimed 4th Amendment human right to privacy and used it to keep out OSHA, EPA, and to hide crimes.|
|Purpose||Corporations were chartered for a single purpose, had to also serve the public good, and had fixed/limited life spans.||Corporations lobbied states to change corporate charter laws to eliminate “public good” provisions from charters, to allow multiple purposes, and to exist forever.|
|Ownership||Just as human persons couldn’t own other persons, corporations couldn’t own the stock of other corporations (mergers and acquisitions were banned).||Corporations claim the human right to economic activity free of regulatory restraint, and the still-banned-for-humans right to own others of their own kind.|
Hartmann actually goes further saying that the ruling never happened:
But since then, either way, the influence and power of large corporations has increased and is an undeniable facet of the 'global village' and corporate globalization. Of course, the influence of various groups and entities is nothing new. But today, the increasing size and wealth of corporations point to more concentration of wealth and of political and economic power and influence than before. Indeed, today as mentioned above, of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations; only 49 are countries (based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs).
Adam Smith, often regarded as the father of modern capitalism, wrote the influential famous book, The Wealth of Nations in 1776. This book exposed the mercantile and monopoly capitalism of the preceeding centuries as unjust and unfair, and proposed a free market system. He himself was very critical of the influences of concentrated ownership (which is also a way to reduce competition) and large corporations as interfering with free market capitalism (although many who do exert influence don’t mind doing so in his name, and calling it “free market”!) Smith is worth quoting at length:
As Adam Smith warns, only after great precaution, careful, scrupulous and “suspicious attention” should commerce-related policies from corporate interests be accepted. However, as described in detail on this web site’s media section, corporations also have concentrated ownership of the mainstream media, which makes it even more difficult these days for the general public to apply great precaution, careful, scrupulous and “suspicious attention.”
The remainder of this web site’s section on corporations introduces some of the impacts and influences of corporations around the world. (Due to the immense size of this topic, do be sure to check back for updates!)
- The Rise of Corporations
- Corporations and Human Rights
- Tax Avoidance and Tax Havens; Undermining Democracy
- Pharmaceutical Corporations and Medical Research
- Pharmaceutical Corporations and AIDS
- Corporations and the Environment
- Corporate Social Responsibility
- Corporate Influence on Children
- Corporations and Worker’s Rights
- Influence at the World Trade Organization
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